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> Posted by Elisabeth Rhyne, Managing Director, CFI, and Michael Mori, Senior Designer, Dalberg Design Impact Group
The following post was originally published on NextBillion.
From a mathematical point of view, borrowing and saving are mirror images. In both cases many small payments allow for one or more large payouts. Only the sequence differs. Stuart Rutherford’s classic description involves “saving up” (saving) and “saving down” (borrowing), both for the purpose of assembling “usefully large sums.” When viewed in this way it is clear that saving and borrowing can serve much the same purpose, and at times can even substitute for each other.
This is true, as far as it goes, and it underscores the importance of disciplined payments of small amounts as a path to obtaining the lump sums needed for major purchases.
We recently traveled to India (Mumbai and rural Maharashtra) and Kenya (Nairobi and farming villages outside of Nyahururu) as part of a research project led by the Center for Financial Services Innovation and the Center for Financial Inclusion, and conducted by Dalberg. In speaking with a variety of residents, we were struck by vast differences in the way people make borrowing and savings decisions.
The people we talked with carried out most of their financial actions through informal instruments, though many were members of cooperatives and some did have (largely inactive) bank accounts. Instead of using these formal options, they borrowed mostly from friends, family and moneylenders. They saved in cash stashed at home, livestock, land and gold, amongst other assets. We asked how they decided where and how to save and borrow. They very willingly described their thought processes and the considerations that guide them in making decisions. As it turns out, their decisions about borrowing hang on surprisingly different criteria from those about saving, bearing on very different realms of their lives.
> Posted by Kathleen Yaworsky, Lead Specialist, Channels & Technology, Accion, and Alexandra Rizzi, Deputy Director, the Smart Campaign
Sure, I’ll help you do that here. Here’s what you’ll need…
A similar scene unfolded across 80 small merchant agent locations (business correspondents or customer service points, as they’re called in India) as the Smart Campaign conducted mystery shopping research to uncover and understand the client protection risks in the provision of financial services at agent network outlets.
Agent networks play a critical role in increasing financial access by helping financial service providers broaden their reach beyond branches, but in order for an agent network to succeed, the client must trust the agent and be able to perform transactions with confidence. The current rapid growth in agent networks is driven by a push to build out the infrastructure and increase access points. Future growth will require quality from the services delivered through that infrastructure. That’s why it is critical to identify and address potential risks early on.
Complicating the identification and mitigation of client protection risks are several common characteristics of agent banking, including limited agent control over product design and pricing, and the part-time nature and lack of employee status of agents.
> Posted by MFIN
In 2013, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced a significant policy move in the form of Self Regulatory Organization (SRO) guidelines for the microfinance industry. An SRO is an organization that has been authorized by a regulator to exercise control and regulation on its behalf over certain aspects of an industry. In the case of Indian microfinance, an SRO supports the RBI in ensuring compliance with statutory regulations and the Industry Code of Conduct, while also taking up research, training, data analytics, and capacity building of the sector. The SRO architecture has dramatically altered the landscape of the Indian industry, providing stability to the industry, with more robust market discipline and customer protection.
MFIN, whose membership consists of 52 NBFC-MFIs which account for over 90 percent of India’s microfinance business, was recognized as an SRO by the RBI in June, 2014. Since then, MFIN has worked towards putting in place an effective SRO framework, with borrower protection as the focal point. One of the important obligations of the SRO in line with the RBI guidelines is to have an independent redressal mechanism for addressing the grievances of microfinance clients. In order to standardize the grievance redressal mechanism and to ensure a common minimum benchmark, MFIN drew on the existing grievance redressal mechanisms (GRMs) of 45 MFIs and worked in partnership with the Smart Campaign to cull out the good practice from these models. The idea was to put in place a three tier mechanism based on the capacity of the MFI concerned, and the Smart Campaign was asked to work on such a model whose aim was to standardize and ultimately strengthen the practices of the member institutions.
> Posted by Center Staff
Today, the global financial inclusion celebrity (and Prime Minister of India) Narendra Modi visits with United States President Barack Obama. The pair will discuss the deepening U.S.-India relationship, including progress on climate change and clean energy partnerships, security and defense cooperation, and economic growth priorities. As a reader of our blog, you’re likely aware of Prime Minister Modi and India’s commitment to advancing financial inclusion in the country. Indeed, at the close of 2015, we named India our Financial Inclusion Country of the Year. In honor of Prime Minister Modi’s visit today, we wanted to take a moment to spotlight some of the strides that India has taken to bank the unbanked. After a brief review of the broad initiatives, we identify some highlights from recent months.
Jayshree Venkatesan is a financial inclusion consultant focusing on innovative delivery models to serve the excluded. As part of the CFI’s recent financial capability-building project, Jayshree conducted a review of financial capability in the Indian context. India’s market is rapidly changing, with the influx of new banking licenses, government programs, technologies, and providers. In this podcast Jayshree discusses the state of financial capability-building in India, and in the post below, she offers some additional thoughts.
Recently the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) put forth draft guidelines on licensing universal banks. The RBI had already put forth a call for universal bank license applications and issued in-principle licenses to two applicants who then formed banks. In an industry where obtaining a license has not been seen as easy, the issuance of these guidelines is an unprecedented move and one that clearly aims at solving supply side challenges of financial access. In the last two years, competition between institutions has already begun increasing with the provision of the two universal bank licenses, 11 payment bank licenses, and 10 small finance banks. If one were to consider perfect conditions of demand and supply, this would be a fantastic situation and one would assume that the era of the customer had finally arrived. However, India also has one of the highest account dormancy rates in the world. Uptake and usage of financial services, especially those where usage is traditionally contribution-driven, such as insurance and savings accounts, continue to be low. For financial service providers, such behavior fails to build a strong business case.
> Posted by IFMR Trust
The following post was originally published on the IFMR Trust blog.
In this blog post we interview Elisabeth Rhyne, MD, Center for Financial Inclusion, Accion, and co-author of the recently published study A Change in Behavior: Innovations in Financial Capability.
Your paper is the result of a global search for innovative approaches to building consumer financial capability. Financial capability is not a well-known concept. What does it mean?
We define financial capability as the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors a person needs to make sound financial decisions that support well-being. The financial capability approach stems from the research that reveals an important gap between knowing and doing. We may know that savings is important, but we spend instead. Financial capability focuses on behavior change as well as the desired outcome: customer financial health. This approach contrasts with traditional financial education, which has generally been focused on knowledge and information transfer, often stopping short of considering whether information is acted upon.
What prompted you to carry out your scan of the financial capability landscape?
I was reading a lot of material by behavioral economists, and so I was aware of the power of their ideas. However, I didn’t see the kind of uptake in practice that I thought the ideas deserved. I wanted to understand why this wasn’t happening. I was also aware of technology developments that opened exciting new avenues for communicating with consumers, and wanted to find the innovators – organizations like Juntos, a data analytics firm which partners with financial institutions to create personalized SMS conversations containing reminders and tips for customers.
We are also grateful that JPMorgan Chase & Co. provided generous financial support.
What were your main findings?
> Posted by Anna Kanze, Chief Operating Officer, Grassroots Capital Management
The initial public offering (IPO) of Chennai-based Equitas Holdings Ltd., the holding firm for the fifth-largest microlender in India, was very successful, raising nearly US$235 million (Rs 1,525 crore) and demonstrating the maturation of the microfinance and financial inclusion sectors in India.
When the stock opened on April 7 to the domestic market, the demand greatly exceeded the number of available shares (16x oversubscribed) and provided a strong exit (an average multiple of 3.6x) for Equitas’ shareholders, which included a mix of social and responsible investment funds and traditional private equity investors. The stock opened to international buyers on April 21 and closed with a price on the first day of trading 23 percent above the issue price.
Funds managed by Caspian Impact Investment Adviser (Caspian), an Indian investment management and advisory services company that invests capital in businesses delivering both financial and social value, were early investors in Equitas and active in its governance. (Another Caspian-backed microfinance firm, Bengaluru-based Ujjivan Financial Services Ltd., the fourth-largest microfinance lender in India by assets under management, raised approximately Rs 900 crore in an initial public offering that opened on April 28 and was nearly 41 times oversubscribed as of closing on May 2, 2016.) Given this market activity, we at Caspian and Grassroots Capital Management PBC, who work together closely on this and other investments, are prompted to take a closer look at what this IPO means for the company, its clients, and the industry.
> Posted by Center Staff
Remember the first time you tried to cook? Chances are you were nervous or at least apprehensive about how the food would turn out. If friends or family were in attendance, or, worse, were to eat what you were preparing, you were probably even less confident. Remember the second time you cooked? Or the third? Probably not. The more you actually got into the kitchen, the more your skills sharpened, and the more routine it became.
Using formal financial services for the first time, like cooking, can be intimidating – especially for people not used to interacting with formal institutions. Banks are big and complicated. A person of moderate means might feel that the bank will treat her as a low priority customer. And the notion of entrusting one’s livelihood to an unfamiliar entity is scary.
As part of CFI’s new financial capability project, we scanned the globe for the top innovations to help clients build their capability and make sound financial decisions. One of the behaviorally-informed practices we identified among these innovations as having great promise to affect changes in behavior is learning by doing, a strategy closely connected to effective, practical learning. Think of how much quicker your capability grew by actually cooking, than by reading a cook book.
Learning by doing, whether through technology-enabled simulations, or in real life with the supervision of front-line staff, enables customers to overcome the initial barriers to use that come with unfamiliarity and lack of confidence. Learning by doing offers customers the space to learn and get comfortable with financial products. This can be especially valuable for customer activation.
> Posted by Susy Cheston, Senior Advisor, CFI
A lot of money is being spent on financial education—and we’d like to see it spent more effectively. We still don’t know all that is needed about what works, but based on our scan of the current landscape for financial capability-building innovations, we can already recommend six major shifts in how financial capability resources are deployed.
The first three recommendations relate to who is building financial capability.
1. Bring financial capability efforts closer to the actual use of financial services by enabling providers to take a greater role.
2. Shift the expectation that the government is responsible for financial capability to an expectation of shared responsibility among all stakeholders, including financial service providers and other institutions.
3. Engage organizations serving BoP constituencies, from government social service agencies to employers to non-profits.
This calls for “all hands on deck.” We argue, first and foremost, that providers can and should take a primary role in building financial capability, as they are best equipped to reach customers at teachable moments and to help them learn by doing. Many providers are already spending significant resources on financial education. They could have a much greater return on their investment if they focused those resources on embedding financial capability into product design and delivery, looking at all the touch points in the customer experience as opportunities to help customers use products more successfully.