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> Posted by Elizabeth Davidson, Financial Inclusion 2020 Consultant
What’s Financial Inclusion 2020 going to do next? Since the conclusion of the FI2020 Global Forum just a few weeks ago, we’ve gotten this question a lot. For me, the more interesting question is, “What are you going to do?”
Over 140 Global Forum participants answered this question by filling out a postcard with their personal commitment to advancing financial inclusion.
Here’s a sampling of what financial inclusion leaders plan to do to advance to full financial inclusion by the year 2020.
“Partner with government and the development community to not only launch scalable and relevant products but also build usage to ensure true financial inclusion.”
“Foster stronger collaboration through best practices between developed and developing countries.”
Increasing collaboration emerged as a huge theme, with over one-third of respondents referencing their commitment to increase work with other financial inclusion stakeholders and more than 20 participants identifying collaboration as the key component of their commitment. For us, this is exciting: collaboration is a key tenet of FI2020. We believe collaboration among different kinds of actors will be a big part of the solution to reaching full financial inclusion.
> Posted by Elisabeth Rhyne, Managing Director, CFI
The following post was originally published on the World Bank Private Sector Development Blog.
The issue of financial inclusion seems to be everywhere – from the World Bank Annual Meetings to the new UN post-2015 development goals. It’s got buzz in the private sector, public sector and development organizations big and small. Policymakers are increasingly making financial inclusion a priority through specific financial inclusion targets and commitments, such as the Alliance for Financial Inclusion’s Maya Declaration. In fact, World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim recently launched an initiative “to provide universal financial access to all working-age adults by 2020.”
As we know from the Global Findex, more than 2.5 billion people lack access to even a basic bank account — a huge gap in inclusion and an enormous opportunity. Demographic changes, economic growth, and advances in technology are making global financial inclusion more possible than ever before. With a massive new market of people demanding new services as incomes rise among the bottom 40 percent, the stage is set for dramatic leaps in access in the next few years. Emerging technologies are bringing down costs and opening new business models while providing greater access to a range of services.
Recognizing that the time is ripe for significant progress on financial inclusion, the Center for Financial Inclusion developed a consultative process aimed to raise everyone’s sights about the possibilities of achieving full inclusion within a foreseeable timeframe – using the year 2020 as a focal point. The process sought to build a more cohesive financial inclusion “community” through the development of a common vision. It brought together experts from the World Bank, IFC, and CGAP along with many representatives of the private sector and the social sector. Financial Inclusion 2020’s Roadmap to Financial Inclusion is the result.
With all of the financial inclusion buzz, you would think that we would be closer to full inclusion. But if closing the gaps were easy, it would have happened already. Many factors still stand in the way. In the case of regulatory accommodation to new technology, for example, the gaps result from such factors as the pace of the spread of know-how among policymakers globally, national legislative and political processes, and uncertainty about the risks involved with new models. In the case of fully addressing the needs of customers at the base of the pyramid (BOP), gaps stem from a combination of doubt among providers about the likely profitability of these customers and limited knowledge inside institutions about the financial lives of the poor. In the case of client protection, providers face perverse incentives, while many regulatory bodies are only beginning the major task of establishing robust oversight of market conduct.
We see encouraging examples of financial inclusion in the most remote corners of the world, often done by surprising actors. However, the momentum is uneven. The Roadmap process included many of the thinkers and entrepreneurs behind such initiatives. Each of the five working groups — Addressing Customer Needs, Technology, Financial Capability, Client Protection and Credit Reporting — has developed a roadmap to direct the world community toward the actions most needed to achieve FI2020’s vision of full financial inclusion. Most of the recommendations are addressed either to governments or to providers, but they point the way to actions needed by a range of supporting organizations, including multilateral and bilateral organizations, donors, social investors and non-profits, at both the global and the national levels.
> Posted by Center Staff
This year’s Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI) Global Policy Forum (GPF) at Sasana Kijang in Kuala Lumpur concluded today with the AFI network launching the Sasana Accord. We wrote about AFI network countries’ commitments to the Maya Declaration a few weeks ago. The Sasana Accord further strengthens the effectiveness of these commitments, adding the layer of systemic assessment of impact to ensure quantifiable and measurable financial inclusion targets.
The fifth annual GPF, the largest to date, brought together 400 participants from 80 countries, spanning senior policymakers, central bank governors, partners from international organizations, and key private sector players. Under the theme “Driving Policies for Optimal Impact,” participants discussed and deliberated on the optimal policy strategies by synergizing financial inclusion, financial stability, and consumer protection objectives. Here’s a video recording of the Forum’s final sessions – “Announcement of New Commitments to the Maya Declaration,” “Sasana Accord,” and “Closing Ceremony.”
In facilitating data-based and measurable results of financial inclusion policy and strategy, the Sasana Accord better positions countries to accelerate their progress towards full inclusion. The Accord lists out the following actions for countries to integrate into their commitments. Read the rest of this entry »
> Posted by Center Staff
This week the global financial inclusion community saw a mini-milestone: with the newly signed-on Nepal, 40 countries have committed to the Maya Declaration. The Maya Declaration is a global and measurable set of commitments by developing and emerging country governments to greater financial inclusion.
When a country commits to the Maya Declaration, they make measurable commitments in four financial inclusion areas: create an enabling environment to harness new technology that increases access and lowers costs of financial services; implement a proportional framework that advances synergies in financial inclusion, integrity, and stability; integrate consumer protection and empowerment as a key pillar of financial inclusion; utilize data for informed policymaking and tracking results.
Nepal announced its Maya Declaration commitment on Tuesday. In the commitment, Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) vowed to increase the country’s financial literacy through the development of a national-level Financial Literacy Strategy by mid-2014. The bank also committed to conducting a financial literacy program for students, “NRB with Students,” and widely disseminating financial literacy materials to promote public awareness. To strengthen the country’s mobile money services, the commitment includes provisions to improve the quality of existing mobile money services and to introduce new services before the end of 2014. Also before the end of 2014, Nepal’s commitment outlines that NRB will direct a national-level survey on rural credit and create a Financial Sector Development Strategy. Other recent country commitments came from Belarus this past May and El Salvador this past March.
> Posted by Elisabeth Rhyne, Managing Director, CFI
I don’t know how they will do it. Bank regulators, that is. How will they cope with the challenges coming their way throughout this decade of rapid financial sector change?
In the good old days, if there were such days, bank regulators operated inside their comfort zones in a world with known risks. A standard set of skills and knowledge saw them through. If I may indulge in stereotype (without being entirely unfair), the profile a bank supervisor needed was: good with numbers, cautious, a stickler for details, dedicated, often courageous, and having a strong sense of right and wrong. These are all wonderful qualities, and for prudential supervision of banks, there was a good fit between the task and this personal profile. Just as important, the bodies of knowledge regulators and supervisors needed was well understood.
Not today. The post-financial crisis world deeply challenges the comfort zone for banking authorities. In specific, I want to focus here on how financial inclusion challenges it. Changes associated with financial inclusion require banking authorities to move beyond their zones and develop a broader range of skills and qualities in at least three ways.
1. Adapting to continual technology change. Regulators around the globe are struggling today to create regulations that will bring the wonders of mobile money into their countries. But mobile money is only the technology du jour. Just as regulators get mobile money squared away, new technologies and business models are bound to appear and render regulations on the previous model outdated. I suspect, for example, that the spread of smartphones will upend SMS-based mobile money models, forcing regulators to shift focus from telecoms operators to cyber-security. Each new technology brings different players, new business models, and its own set of stresses on regulatory boundaries. While there are many with deep technical expertise among bank regulators, the pace of change is daunting, especially for organizations that must work within or seek to change legislative and regulatory constraints.
2. New mandates for consumer protection, especially at the base of the pyramid. Bank regulation is built around a time-honored and economic-theory-backed justification that includes financial system stability, and in many cases depositor protection, but not what we know as consumer protection (transparency, product suitability, fair treatment, recourse). Regulators now need to view consumer protection supervision as an equal and necessary compliment to prudential supervision. But legislative mandates for consumer protection are new and still incomplete, organizational structures are often missing or overlapping, and the body of knowledge that supports consumer protection regulation is still quite young. Prudential supervision is still seen as the “hard science” by numbers-driven supervisors, while consumer protection may be viewed as nice but not really essential. Very few countries currently have consumer protection regimes that are mature and successful enough to serve as models.
> Posted by John Gitau, CEO, Kenya Financial Education Centre
“Morning Sir! I was just thinking. At what cost is financial inclusion? I have just read a big sign in Donholm: Redeem your airtime for cash. Does this add to financial inclusion? If I am stuck, someone can sambaza (share) airtime and then I can redeem it as cash and get fare to go home. In financial inclusion, since you are in this field, is it all about such access and convenience to financial services?”
I didn’t immediately have an answer to his question. It sent me thinking broadly and deeply. Through M-Pesa, Safaricom has a “financial inclusion” base of over 16 million Kenyans. Then I remembered that in the G20 Los Cabos Summit of June 2012,* mobile money use was left out as one of the measures of financial inclusion. Having a formal bank account was in. But this realization left me more confused. Safaricom mobile connectivity through its M-Pesa product is excluded as an inclusion parameter just because Safaricom isn’t a bank? Wait a minute, now we have M-Shwari, a bank account at Commercial Bank of Africa available to M-Pesa customers through Safaricom. How shall that be treated? Inclusion within a largely excluded service? Of all Safaricom M-Pesa customers, are only those with M-Shwari accounts counted as included?
This reminded me of a story in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart about a character called Dimaragana who could not give his knife to cut dog meat because dog meat was taboo, but he was ready to cut the dog meat with his teeth. So, Safaricom customers using M-Pesa are not included but perhaps if they go deeper into its system and buy a product called M-Shwari, they’ll get included? Unsatisfied, I thought about a few other financial services scenarios. If an M-Pesa customer were to close off her M-Shwari account while still using M-Pesa, would that be exclusion? Suppose instead of M-Shwari, she sends money to her retirement benefit scheme through her Mbao Pension scheme. Would she then be considered included? She could also buy an insurance policy from CIC Insurance using their Ksh 20 insurance-per-day scheme and make her payments through M-Pesa… Still excluded?
> Posted by Dave Grace, Managing Partner, Dave Grace & Associates
The Financial Inclusion 2020 campaign at the Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion is building a movement toward full financial inclusion by 2020. This blog series spotlights financial inclusion efforts around the globe, shares insights from the FI2020 consultative process and highlights findings from “Mapping the Invisible Market.”
“Pushing financial access is great, but what are clients being pushed into?” This has been the common refrain I’ve heard from regulators in Basel, the Alliance for Financial Inclusion, and central bankers in the Caribbean, where I’m sitting now when I talk about the prospects for full financial inclusion within the decade. Given what the financial communities in Europe, India, and the U.S. have been through, we should not be surprised by this common-sense reaction. Consumer protection must be a key component of the Financial Inclusion 2020 platform. Together with a team of policy, technology, regulatory, and financial institution executives, and a former lobbyist for financial cooperatives (um, me), we’ve developed a framework of actionable recommendations that seek to balance access with protection.
We, in the FI2020 Client Protection Working Group, can foresee that even in a state of full financial inclusion, incentives persist for providers to look out for their own interests at the expense of clients, due to certain information, power, and structural imbalances in financial services. The challenge of client protection therefore is to reduce these imbalances and provide countervailing incentives or requirements for positive behavior.
The Financial Inclusion 2020 campaign at the Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion is building a movement toward full financial inclusion by 2020. Accordingly, this blog series will spotlight financial inclusion efforts around the globe, share insights coming out of the creation of a roadmap to full financial inclusion, and highlight findings from research on the “invisible market.”
The Financial Inclusion 2020 campaign begins with an audacious premise: that it is possible, if all the stars align, to achieve full financial inclusion for all with quality financial services by the year 2020. Yes, that would take quite a few stars to line up perfectly, but here are my top seven reasons for optimism as we work to advance inclusion.
1. There are more mobile phones than toothbrushes in the world today.
Bad news for dental health, but good news for billions of previously excluded clients who have access to a device that can include them in financial services if the mobile money folks play their cards right. With mobile subscriptions exceeding 86 percent of the global population, there is great promise if providers can figure out the business models.
> Posted by Dave Grace, Advisor, CFI
HOPE! Maybe it’s my punch drunk self toward the end of a way too long U.S. election cycle, but it’s the word that comes to mind following the meeting of 80 regulatory agencies in Cape Town. The Cape Town affair was the Alliance for Financial Inclusion’s (AFI) annual Global Policy Forum.
What was so hopeful? That 35 central banks from developing and emerging markets made or reported on past commitments to increase financial inclusion! In my two decades of work in development finance, this is the first time that policymakers, who have the power to change financial systems, are creating a global movement to help the poor in a material way. While some of the commitments from central banks are malleable, most are concrete. For example, Malaysia is seeking 95 percent access by 2012, Ghana is seeking 70 percent inclusion by 2017 and is changing its payments, financial literacy and mobile financial services framework to get there.